Workload Breakdown

This project will be separated into three parts, each one overseen by a group member: Military Significance, Cultural Significance, and Documentary.

Daryl will be in charge of the Military Significance section. He will do the research, write the pages “Antecedents” and “Cold War”, contribute to the “Cost” and “Legacy” pages, and find and cite pictures/videos relevant to his pages. He will post and cite two or three pictures/videos per page.

Lindsey will be in charge of the Cultural Significance section. She will do the research, write the pages “Cultural Impact” and “About”,  contribute to the “Cost” and “Legacy” pages, and find and cite pictures/videos relevant to her pages. She will post and cite two or three pictures/videos per page. She will also be in charge of creating the website layout.

Nick will be in charge of the Documentary. He will write the script, direct and shoot the film, give his group mates parts to participate in, and do any video editing necessary. He will be in charge of the “Documentary” page as well as the “Bibliography” page. He will also contribute to research as his group mates need him.

Division of work (who is doing what)

Heather Taylor: completing all pages under the “Future of the Mouse” tab, about page, website layout; helping with planning, producing and editing documentary

Megan Palmer: completing all pages under “People of the Mouse” tab; helping with planning and producing documentary

Anna Collins: completing all pages under “History of the Mouse” tab; helping with planning, producing, and editing documentary

Heidi Schmidt: completing all pages under “Antecedents of the Mouse” tab, bibliography page ; helping with planning and producing the documentary, citations for the documentary

Project Outline

Outline

 

        1. Homepage

-Basic Overview of the Other Pages

-Iconic Photo:

Percy Spencer (inventor of the microwave) stands next to a microwave.
Simpson, Barry. “Microwave Oven, 1965.” Digital image. Te Ara. September 5, 2013. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/38524/Microwave
-oven-1965.

-Final Video Documentary

2. Inventing the Microwave

-Percy Spencer

-Story of Creation at Raytheon Company à working in a room with a radar system and noticed the chocolate in his pocket has melted; intrigued and started testing other foods, such as popcorn

-Applied for Patent in 1945

-Original Form:  Commercial Microwave – 6ft tall and 750 pounds – not for use in homes

-1970s:  Microwave becomes more compact and becomes widely used in homes across the country

-The style and size of microwaves continue to change today

 

3. Antecedents and Possible Alternatives

-The Oven – ancient times: Jews and Romans used a form of a stone or brick oven heated by wood; colonial times: brick ovens heated by both wood and ash à will be portrayed in a timeline using Timeline JS

-Toaster Oven – Still an alternative to the microwave today, didn’t disappear

 

4. Basic Science of the Microwave

-Will examine the principles behind – and link to a brief video brief and simply describing how the microwave functions

-Explain what new technology made the microwave so revolutionary

 

5. Impact on American Society

-Helped to shape and develop the popcorn industry – popcorn was first sold the year before the microwave was invented; popcorn was featured in the original patent for the microwave

-Ease of Cooking in American Households – Before: cooking meals could be laborious and time consuming; Microwave: meals could be cooked and served quickly – saved time and also helped to establish the trend of cooking enough food for leftovers

-Interview with Lisa Salita about the impact she saw with the microwave while growing up during the 1970s

 

 

Outlines

Outlines

Research Site Skeleton

Iconic Image with Citation

Anonymous engraver. Comparison of Full-Keyboard, Single-Shift, and Double-Shift Typewriters   in 1911, 1911, Engraving. Larousse mensuel illustré.   https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Comparison_of_Full-Keyboard,_Single-      Shift,_and_Double-Shift_Typerwriters_in_1911.png. Accessed 16 March, 2017.

Page 1:

We will use TimelineJS to go through the evolution of the typewriter including its antecedents and its early evolution into the computer. These will include images of each item or its inventor and a small blurb with its name and a brief description of the item:

  • Antecedents: Typographer and printing press
  • 1714 Britain typewriter patent
  • 1829- First American typewriter patent, William Austin Burt, Detroit (his patents and prototype were destroyed in a fire)
  • Sholes & Glidden- First commercially successful 1874
  • Braille typewriter
  • Electric typewriter
  • Computer
  • Effects on society
    • Office culture-women in the office
    • Education
    • Authors

(The next pages will focus on some of the aspects of the timeline and delve into more detail, the ones we will discuss have been bolded)

Page 2:

For our second page, we will go deeper into the typographer and printing press, the effects they had on society, and how they influenced the invention of the typewriter. We will use images of the printing press and the typography process to demonstrate their influences to the typewriter.

Page 3:

Similar to the second page, we will focus on the first typewriter patent that originated in Britain in 1714 by Henry Mill. As we do not have an image of the patent we will include an image of Henry Mill on this page.

Page 4:

This page will focus on the typewriter developed by Sholes & Glidden, which is credited as being the first commercially successful typewriter. It hit the market in 1874 and became more successful than any of its predecessors. We will discuss aspects of this typewriter that made it as successful as it was. We will include images of the patents submitted and the actual typewriter itself.

Page 5:

The typewriter can still be seen today. One example that we will discuss is the braille typewriter used by blind students. Another is the electric typewriter that is often used by authors when they are typing their manuscripts. We will discuss the uses of these two modern typewriters and include images of both of these so that people can see how they have developed since the 1874 model.

Page 6:

We will discuss the effects of the typewriter on several aspects of society. Starting with a discussion of how typewriters affected office culture in the 1800s, we will then move on to its effects today. The effects include its modern uses and effects on office work and education. We will include images of the typewriter in schools and offices.

 

 

Documentary Skeleton

*infomercial style of benefits of the typewriter/ selling to our audience*

Scene 1: Black and white/ sepia-toned opening of modern-day desktop keyboards and laptops breaking, etc…

Narrator speaking over the scene about the difficulties of life.

Scene 2: Typewriter swoops into scene with bright graphics and narrator offers a solution. The four of us explain the background of the typewriter and how it came to be what it is today in a brief history of the inventors.

Scene 3: Explain how the typewriter helped bring women into the workforce and its influence on office culture.

Scene 4: Interview Ernest Hemingway (big typewriter advocate) about why he loves using the typewriter so much.

Scene 5: Interview modern day author who still uses typewriter and its benefits.

Scene 6: Show kids in a classroom setting with a typewriter, focused on their assignments, not distracted by the Internet.

Scene 7: Show how easy it is to maintain a typewriter (covering it when not in use, dusting the exterior etc).

Scene 8: Four of us recapping why the typewriter is perfect for everyone and give a fake number to call to order for only $49.99 plus shipping and handling.

Documentary Storyboard

The documentary will be similar to a historical documentary segment, in which a narrator offers important information and then receives validation through interviewed “experts.” Since no real experts will be available for interviews, we will act out our own expertise. Daryl will be one interviewed “expert” who will explain the militaristic value of the B-2 Bomber. Lindsey will be the cultural “expert” who will explain the cultural impact of the B-2. Nick will narrate before, between, and after the interview sections. In order to keep the film interesting among the talking, photos and videos will take up the majority of the film. The interviewees will only appear when they start and stop talking. Some snippets of music will play in the background to provide ambiance while people speak and to provide an intro and outro. At the end of the video, the credits will roll to cite the video, images, and audio used throughout. A transcript of the video and its citations will appear on the web page dedicated to the documentary. Here is a rough sketch of how the video will go:

 

[Intro appears along with an audio clip of some patriotic music. The narrator cuts in with the first image of the B-2 Bomber.]

Narrator Nick: The US military has developed a wide array of artillery throughout the years, specifically within aviation. The B-2 Bomber is a product of the Cold War as stealth technology grew in importance. [pans over two images of B-2]

Interview of Daryl, explaining the military significance of the B-2 on the green screen. [background is a landed B-2] Talk about the Cold War and development of stealth technology. [cold war imagery] Talk about antecedents of the B-2. [sketches, prototypes, or images of old bomber jets] Talk about the B-2’s development and use. [blueprints, video of assembly or tests] Talk about what the B-2 meant for America. [v ideo of bomber’s use] [Daryl appears again to deliver last point]

Nick: The B-2 had more than just a military impact, however. Its cost of production was immense. But why spend so much on jets? What made this cost necessary? [B-2 video of production or materials]

Lindsey, explaining cultural impact of B-2 on the green screen. Talk about how US citizens responded to it. [any videos of protest, speeches, or publicity] Talk about its cost and economic impact. [people juxtaposed against B-2 fighters] Talk about any resistance or social response. [images of people for/against B-2] Talk about varying opinions regarding the B-2. [any interview clips we can find] [Lindsey appears again to deliver last point]

Nick, narrating over videos of B-2: The B-2 is an important artifact in American culture. Its military prowess helped make the United States one of the most powerful nations on earth. Its cultural impact helped make Americans feel secure and powerful within their own nation. In the end, the B-2 Bomber had an impact on American culture that is as quiet and distant as its movement through the skies, yet as powerful as its strike. [B-2 flying, then bombing. Fade to black, roll the credits with some patriotic music in the background]

Website Outline

The website will be separated by sections of discussion that cover the B-2 Bomber’s history and impact as a cultural and technological artifact. Each page will cover a different section with relevant images and sources. The following is a breakdown of what each page will look like.

 

About Page

This page will explain what the B-2 Bomber is and give an overview of its militaristic and cultural impacts. It will function as the introduction paragraph of the site. The website will also default to this page so that viewers will immediately be able to find information regarding the B-2 Bomber.

 

Documentary

This page will feature the documentary as well as a transcript of what the video says. Additional information and citations will be provided at the bottom.

 

Antecedents

This page will show what came before the B-2 and how they evolved into what made this particular bomber possible.

 

Cold War

This page will describe the impact of the Cold War in shaping the perceived need for a weapon like the B-2 Bomber. It will give a brief history of stealth technology’s rising importance to Americans during the Cold War Era.

 

Cost

This page will explain what the costs for the B-2 are and how it is produced. Here will explain further the economic impact and lead into a cultural discussion regarding labor and the public response to military funding.

 

Cultural Impact

This page will go more in-depth on the cultural impact and explain why Americans accepted the creation of the B-2 Bomber not only as something necessary but as something important. It will show how people respond to the B-2, any resistance and praise it received both publicly and politically, and the way it is used as an American icon.

 

Legacy

This page will conclude discussion and carry the B-2 forward into its modern impact militaristically, economically, and culturally. It will also explain how the B-2 is a technological artifact worthy of mentioning in history; this bomber jet helped America feel as though it was powerful against its greatest enemy and remains a symbol of power today.

 

Bibliography

This page will detail all sources used throughout the site, organized into groups of written sources (primary and secondary), media sources, and sources used within the documentary.

Documentary Outline

Frame 1: Begin with contemplative music, title slide “Douglas C. Englebart, 2010”
Frame 2: start with video interview of Doug Englebart talking about how he came up with the concept for the mouse
Engelbart, Douglas C. “Inventor of the Computer Mouse.” YouTube video. 2:03. Posted by Neoncon2008, February 25, 2010. Accessed February 20, 2017.
Frame 3: Another title slide “The Computer Mouse: Aglet of the digital world” [fade out to black]
Frame 4: Zooming in to an image of a shoe, narrator asks viewer “When you see this image, what is the first thing you notice? More than likely, your eye was not drawn to the plastic tip at the end of the lace: a vital feature to keep laces from unraveling and helping you to tie your shoes. (shift to image of aglet) This piece is called an aglet. Let’s try another.
Frame 5: Zooming into the image of a desktop computer. Narrator asks “what is the first thing you notice? The monitor? the keyboard? however I highly doubt your eye was drawn to the rounded rectangle with a cord that allows you to navigate the images on your monitor with ease. Yup, you guessed it. This digital rodent is none other than the computer mouse. Despite its mundane appearance, there is so much more to the story of the mouse than one might expect.
Frame 6: Begin discussing the process of developing the mouse. Use relevant pictures to facilitate understanding of the process from inspiration to demo
Frame 7: Show footage from the “mother of all demos”
Frame 8: Discuss more recent developments in the design of the mouse, from a block of wood to the mighty mouse by Apple
Frame 9: Feature demo video for Apple’s Mighty Mouse
“New Apple Magic Mouse Release Video.” YouTube video. 2:25. Posted by “wildwilla.” Oct 20, 2009. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRRu4dZ2Agw.
Frame 10: Talk about the future of the Mouse and how certain devices threaten its relevancy, such as trackpads and touchscreens
Frame 11: Focus on a picture of Engelbart with his mouse, narrator finishes with “no matter what the future may hold for this mechanical vermin, no one can deny the impact of the mouse on personal computing and user-friendly computer interfaces.

Storyboards for the Documentary: Drawn By Megan Palmer

Website Outline

For our website, we will divide our top menu into 4 sections: Antecedents, History, People of the Mouse, and Future of the Mouse. Each of these sections will have 3 sub-pages focused on specific topics. These topics, including their sources and images, are listed and pictured below:

Antecedents: This section of the website will be focusing on the need for a user friendly computer interface and three main antecedents which are the keyboard, joystick, and lightpen. It will also go over why the antecedents were not picked over the mouse.

Page 1: Keyboard
This page will go over the history of the keyboard and how it was used before the mouse, and why it was not picked. It was one of the more advanced antecedents

Sources:
Roch, Axel. “Fire-Control and Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a History of the Computer Mouse (1940-1965).” Lab. Jahrbuch der Kunsthochschule für Medien in Köln, August 28, 1998. Accessed February 20, 2017. http://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/prod//siliconbase/wip/control.html

Images:

“An Early Keyboard Manufactured in Poland in 1976.” Digital Image. Vintage Stock Pictures. Accessed March 16, 2017. https://vintagestock.pictures/early-computer-keyboard/

Cover photo:

“Apple II Personal Computer.” Digital Image. Smithsonian Institute. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://collections.si.edu/search/tag/tagDoc.htm?recordID=nmah_334638

Page 2: Joystick
This page will discuss the history of the joystick, and why it was not picked. The joystick was one of the first antecedents, and one of the most important.The mouse and the joystick are both pointer devices, but the joystick had other jobs that fit it better than being the main computer interface tool.

Sources:
Roch, Axel. “Fire-Control and Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a History of the Computer Mouse (1940-1965).” Lab. Jahrbuch der Kunsthochschule für Medien in Köln, August 28, 1998. Accessed February 20, 2017. http://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/prod//siliconbase/wip/control.html

Images:

“Franklin Ace Personal Computer.” Digital Image. Smithsonian Institute. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://collections.si.edu/search/tag/tagDoc.htm?recordID=nmah_998404

Cover Picture:

“Joystick.” Digital Image.Tutorials Point Simplicity Learning. Accessed March 16, 2017. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_quick_guide.htm

Page 3: Lightpen
This page will be the history of the lightpen and why it was not chosen. The lightpen was created as a computer interface that touched the screen of the computer.
Sources:
Roch, Axel. “Fire-Control and Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a History of the Computer Mouse (1940-1965).” Lab. Jahrbuch der Kunsthochschule für Medien in Köln, August 28, 1998. Accessed February 20, 2017. http://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/prod//siliconbase/wip/control.html
Images:

“IBM 2250 from a 1968 Sikorsky Aircraft Ad.” Digital Image. Columbia University Computing History. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/2250.html

Cover photo:

“IBM 2250 and 1130 at EXPO ‘70 US Pavilion.” Digital Image. Columbia University Computing History. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/2250.html

History:
This part will focus on the history of the mouse starting with it’s conception, the process, and ending with the mouse being awarded a patent in 1970.

– Engelbart’s Daydream (page 1)
I will focus on the story of how Engelbart came up with the idea for the mouse while sitting in a class about computer graphics.

(Cover Photo) The First Computer Mouse (about 1964).” SRI International. Digital Image. MouseSite. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/extra4/sloan/MouseSite/Archive/patent/Mouse.html

“Drawing from Engelbart’s Patent”. Digital Image. MouseSite. Accessed March 16, 2017.http://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/extra4/sloan/MouseSite/Archive/patent/Mouse.html

-”Augmenting Human Intellect” (page 2)
This page will focus on Engelbart’s research team and the process in which the computer
mouse was invented.

(cover photo)
“Computer-supported Meeting- circa 1967.” Digital Image. Doug Engelbart Institute. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://dougengelbart.org/site/images/img0003.jpg

“The First Mouse Plugged Into Its Display Workstation circa 1964.”Digital Image. Doug Engelbart Institute. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://dougengelbart.org/site/images/img0023.jpg

The Mother of All Demos (Page 3)
This section will end with the “mother of all demos” exhibition in 1968 and then then the mouse receiving its patent in 1970.

(Cover photo)
“1968 Demo.” Digital Image. Doug Engelbart Archive. Acessed March 16, 2017. http://dougengelbart.org/library/engelbart-archives.html

Engelbart, Christina and the Bootstrap Institute. Digital Image. “Original Annoucement of the 1968 Demo.” MouseSite. 1968. March 16, 2017. http://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/extra4/sloan/MouseSite/1968Demo.html

Engelbart, Douglas C. “Inventor of the Computer Mouse.” YouTube video. 2:03. Posted by Neoncon2008, February 25, 2010. Accessed February 20, 2017. https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=SQ7totFRh4g

Greenemeier, Larry. “The Origin of the Computer Mouse: Now an Endangered Species, it was Crucial to the Development of Personal Computing and Internet.” Scientific American, August 18, 2009. Accessed February 20, 2017. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/origins-computer-mouse/

People of the Mouse:

This page will revolve around the individuals that were involved with the invention of the original computer mouse. Not only will it discuss the person whose name is most recognized as linked to the initial invention, but also the people that he worked with in order to develop the final original product.

Sources:

Engelbart, Douglas C. “Inventor of the Computer Mouse.” YouTube video. 2:03. Posted by Neoncon2008, February 25, 2010. Accessed February 20, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQ7totFRh4g

English, William K., Douglas C, Engelbart, and Melvyn L. Berman. “Display-Selection Techniques for Text Manipulation.” IEEE Transaction on Human Factors in Electronics 8, no. 1 (March 1967): 5-15.

Living History: The Doug Engelbart Archive. Doug Engelbart Institute. Accessed February 20, 2017. http://www.dougengelbart.org/library/engelbart-archives.html

Greenemeier, Larry. “The Origin of the Computer Mouse: Now an Endangered Species, it was Crucial to the Development of Personal Computing and Internet.” Scientific American, August 18, 2009. Accessed February 20, 2017. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/origins-computer-mouse/

Images:

Bill English with Computer. Digital Image. History of the Computer. Accessed March 15, 2017.
http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/mouse.html

Doug Engelbart (used as cover image): http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/mouse.html

Douglas Engelbart in 1984. Digital Image. History of the Computer. Accessed March 15, 2017. http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Basis/mouse.html

Future:
-Recent changes/influences in the mouse’s design (Page 1)
On this page, I will focus on the changes in the computer mouse’s design after Engelbart’s initial design. I will discuss the influences of major computer companies like Xerox and Apple on the design and improvements of the mouse over time. Some of these improvements include a change in shape to a more ergonomic form, a cheaper design, and a simpler composition that makes mass production a lot easier.

Sources:
*Atkinson, Paul. “The Best Laid Plans of Mice and Men: The Computer Mouse in the History of Computing.” Design Issues 23, no. 3 (Summer 2007): 49-61.
This is a scholarly journal article that explains the mouse’s historical development and how companies such as Xerox and Apple played a major role in both its design and manufacture.
*Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim. “Mighty Mouse.” Stanford Magazine,March/April 2002. Accessed February 20, 2017.http://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=37694
* Bevier, Katie, Mohit Mehendale, Cy Abdelnour, and Curtis Sawdon. “Designing an Ergonomic Computer Mouse.” Univeristy of Michigan, 2011. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://umich.edu/~desci501/2011/Team10/APD11_T10_FINALREPORT.pdf

Images:
Herrman, John. “Logitech Timeline of Mousery.” Digital Image. Gizmodo. Dec 3, 2008. March 16, 2017.https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2008/12/logitech_timeline_of_mousery_is_full_of_memories_logitech_advertising-2/

(cover photo)
“The how many buttons does your mouse have poll.” Digital Image. McNeel Forums. August, 2016. March 16, 2017.https://discourse.mcneel.com/t/the-how-many-buttons-has-your-mouse-got-poll/36300/11

“The how many buttons does your mouse have poll.” Digital Image. McNeel Forums. August, 2016. March 16, 2017. https://discourse.mcneel.com/t/the-how-many-buttons-has-your-mouse-got-poll/36300/11

-The track pad: the critics have spoken (Page 2)
This page will feature reviews of the trackpad when compared to the mouse. All of the reviews come from ordinary users and illustrate the importance of personal needs and preference. These real-life opinions help show the impact that these technologies have directly on the average consumer in today’s tech society.
Sources:
*“A Week With The Magic Trackpad: It’s Bye Bye Mouse Forever [Review].” Cult of Mac, August 8, 2010. http://www.cultofmac.com/54210/a-week-with-the-magic-trackpad-bye-bye-mouse-forever-review/.

*“Apple Magic Trackpad 2 Review: Solid Performer Doesn’t Feel Essential.” Macworld, October 20, 2015. http://www.macworld.com/article/2995044/input-devices/apple-magic-trackpad-2-review-solid-performer-doesnt-feel-essential.html.

* Kendrick, James. “One Week With the Magic Trackpad — No Pain,” August 9, 2010. https://gigaom.com/2010/08/09/one-week-with-the-magic-trackpad-no-pain/.

Images:
(cover photo)

Op editor. “Magic Trackpad Unboxing by Apple Mouse Stop Motion Video.” Digital Image. Obama Pacman. August, 2010. March 16, 2017. http://obamapacman.com/2010/08/magic-trackpad-unboxing-by-apple-mouse-stop-motion-video/

Jade, Charles. “Review: Apple Magic Trackpad a Futile Gesture.” Digital Image. Gigaom. August, 2010. March 16, 2017.https://gigaom.com/2010/08/02/apple-magic-trackpad-review/

The touch screen revolution: Could the mouse become obsolete? (Page 3)
This final page will focus on the possibility that the mouse could actually become an obsolete piece of technology and the devices that could replace it, especially touch screens. At first, I will discuss the selection of the mouse itself and then dive into the reasons why touch screens may be viewed as superior technology. However, this is a very open-ended discussion with numerous possible outcomes. At best, touchscreens and computer mice are coexisting technologies.

Sources:
* English, William K., Douglas C, Englebart, and Melvyn L. Berman. “Display-Selection Techniques for Text Manipulation.” IEEE Transaction on Human Factors in Electronics 8, no. 1 (March 1967): 5-15.
*Forlines, Clifton, Daniel Wigdor, Chia Shen, and Ravin Balakrishnan. “Direct-Touch vs. Mouse Input for Tabletop Displays.” Paper presented in SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’07. New York, NY, 2007.

*Anonymous. “Goodbye, Computer Mouse.” Communications of the ACM 51, no. 9 (September 2008): 16.

“Kabbash, Paul, William Buxton and Abigail Sellen. “Two-Handed Input in a Compound Task.” Paper presented at the Computer-Human Interface Conference, Boston, MA, April 1994.

*http://www.theverge.com/2016/10/27/13443914/the-new-mac-vs-pc-war-is-all-about-touch (Mac vs. PC touchscreen computer wars)
Images


Russell, Patrick. “Touchscreen Desktops: Yay or nay?” Digital Image. Usability Geek. December, 2013. March 16, 2017. http://usabilitygeek.com/touchscreen-desktops-yay-nay/

“Mouseless.” Digital Image. Projects. June, 2013. March 16, 2017. http://students.iitk.ac.in/projects/eclub_evomouse (Cover photo)

Key Image

Staff Sgt. Bennie J. Davis III, Joint training at Valiant Shield, 2006, digital, Wikimedia, accessed March 16, 2017, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/B2PlanView.jpg/800px-B2PlanView.jpg.
Staff Sgt. Bennie J. Davis III, Joint training at Valiant Shield, 2006, digital, Wikimedia, accessed March 16, 2017, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/B2PlanView.jpg/800px-B2PlanView.jpg.