Primary Sources

Eva, Bill. “Microwave Ovens for the Home – How They Work and What to Look for in Selecting One.” Popular Electronics, July 1976, 39 – 42.

This primary source provides information regarding the history of the microwave, including the top ten microwave companies, and statistics about the increase of microwaves in home kitchens. It also provides insight as to what people were considering when shopping for a new microwave and helps shed light on what was popular.

Kafka, Barbara. Microwave Gourmet – The Only Microwave Cookbook You Will Ever Need. New York: William Morrow and Company Inc., 1987.

This source is one of the many cookbooks published which focuses on cooking entire meals using only the microwave. It illustrates how popular the microwave had become, since there was a clear market for these cookbooks.

Radarange Microwave Oven – by Amana. 1972. “Make the Greatest Cooking Discovery Since Fire.” Advertisement. Accessed February 19, 2017.

This advertisement from the early 70’s, when the microwave started taking off for consumers. The head line “Make the greatest cooking discovery since fire” embodies how important and revolutionary this invention was for the American kitchen.

Spencer, Percy. Method of treating foodstuffs. U.S. Patent 2495429 filed October 8, 1945 issued January 24 1950.

This source of the original patent for “Method of treating foodstuffs” by Percy Spencer was issued in 1945 and filed in 1950. This gives us a better sense of the timeline between Spencer and his invention and its competitors.

Stocklin, William. “Be Cool: Cook With a Microwave Oven.” Electronics World, July 1971, 44. 

The primary source provides information about the early marketing and power of the microwave ovens. It also discusses the early safety features regarding this new technology.


Secondary Sources

Carr, Joseph J. Microwave & Wireless Communications Technology. Boston: Elsevier, 1996.

This source breaks down the makeup of the microwave by the individual parts, both tangible and cellular, to showcase the basic essentials of developing technology.

Cooper, Ken. “Microlessons: Toward a History of Information-Age Cuisine.” Journal of Technology Cuisine 36, no. 3 (2015): 579 – 609.

This article discusses how the technological companies behind new kitchen appliance such as microwaves sold specialized cookbooks in order to capitalize on their products and advance their industry. It also mentions some of the consequences associated with using microwaves.


Elizabeth, Erin. “The Hidden Dangers of Microwaves: and Inexpensive Alternatives.” Health Nut News. Last Modified January 4, 2016. Accessed February 19, 2017.

This webpage discusses the possibles dangers of repeated and prolonged exposure to microwaves on one’s health. It also presents different alternatives to the microwave oven.

“Food for Thought: the History of the Oven.” hhgregg. Last Modified December 12, 2013.Accessed February 20, 2017.

This sources provides a timeline of the different antecedents that derived from the stove. It also includes the microwave and where it fits into the timeline.

Gallawa, J. Carlton. “The History of the Microwave Oven.” Who Invented the Microwave? Accessed February 10, 2017.

This webpage gives a brief history of how Spencer discovered his magnetron tube could heat food and initial reactions to his invention of the microwave oven. Initial reactions to the product were unfavorable.

Ganapati, Priya. “October 25, 1955: Time to Nuke Dinner.” Wired. Last Modified October 25, 2010. Accessed February 10, 2017.

This webpage traces the early history of the microwave including some if it’s antecedents. It compares the prices of its competition and antecedents.

Guenthner, Joseph, Biing-Hwan Lin, and Annette E. Levi. “The influence of microwave ovens on the demand for fresh and frozen potatoes.” Journal of Food Distribution Research 22, no. 3 (1991): 45-52.

This article examines the influence on the food market resulting from the microwave oven. Consumer food preferences and preparation habits adapted to this new invention and brought the development of microwave popcorn, pizza, and soup.

Gustaitis, Joseph. “The Explosive History of Popcorn.” American History 36, no. 4 (2001): 32 – 37. 

This article explains how popcorn and microwaves are linked together and how the industries grew together.

Hammock, William. “Microwave.” American Heritage of Invention & Technology 25, no. 3(2010): 25 – 28.

This article examines the invention of the microwave and also traces the history of the Raytheon Company and its transition from making supplies for World War II to making household goods.

Hine, Claudia. “The Father of  Modern Cooking.” Adhesive Age 40, no. 5 (1997): 66.

This article discusses that despite the fact that Percy Spencer invented the microwave, he did not profit much from it.

McFeely, Mary Drake. Can She Bake a Cherry Pie? American Women and the Kitchen in theTwentieth Century. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 2000.

This book briefly mentions how the microwave was revolutionary in kitchens because it offered those who could not cook or did not have time to the ability to “cook” a meal. It also mentions how food writers created cookbooks specifically for microwaves.

McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking – the Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York:Scribner, 2004.

This source is a reprint of a 1984 cookbook, which explains both how microwave ovens work and also a brief history. It also provides cooking instructions for meats, fish, fruits and vegetables.

“Microwave Ovens vs. Commercial Ovens: a Comparison of Technology and Efficiency.” BiljiBachao!. Last Modified April 22, 2016. Accessed February 20, 2017.

This sources provides a comparison between microwave ovens and commercial ovens and discusses the mechanics behind how a microwave oven works. 

Murray, Don. “Percy Spencer and His Itch to Know.” Reader’s Digest, 1958, 114. 

This article from Reader’s Digest is written by Don Murray, a friend of Percy Spencer. Murray describes Spencer first hand giving us a personal look into his life and personality.

“Percy Spencer.” Famous Inventors. Accessed February 19, 2017.

This source provides information about the life of Percy Spencer as well as providing information regarding the creation of the first microwave.

Ross, Rachel. “Who Invented the Microwave Oven?” Life Science. Last Modified January 5, 2017. Accessed February 19, 2017.

This webpage gives an in-depth account of the history of the microwave, from Spencer inventing it to the initial fears surrounding using it on the side of the public. It then talks about the eventual acceptance by the public and how it became one of the most widely used kitchen products.

Smith, Andrew F. Eating History – 30 Turning Points in the Making of American Cuisine. NewYork: Columbia University Press, 2009.

Eating History has a chapter describing the history of the microwave oven – including the story of how Percy Spencer discovered it, its various antecedents, and how it affected households.

Tweedie, Steven. “How the Microwave Was Invented By a Radar Engineer Who Accidentally Cooked a Candy Bar in his Pocket.” Business Insider. Last Modified July 3, 2015. Accessed February 19, 2017.

This article features an interview with Spencer’s grandson as he recalls the process by which his grandfather invented the microwave.

Wilson, Bee. Consider the Fork – A History of How We Cook and Eat. New York: Basic Books, 2012. 

This book features a section specifically examining the microwave. It covers its invention and early models and concerns, examines how prevalent the microwave is in today’s kitchens, and also talks about its ability to actually cook edible food quickly.

Project Proposal

Project Proposal

HIST 325

The Typewriter


Our group decided to do our project on the typewriter because it played a big role in recording history and allowed people to write more efficiently. It continues to play a role in today’s culture as it paved the road for many future inventions. Our group wants to delve deeper into learning about the typewriter’s roadway to where it is today. We are going to explore the typewriter’s antecedents and its path leading up to the first successful mass production of the typewriter by Christopher Latham Sholes and Samuel W. Soule. We will also analyze its different patent proposals. Furthermore, we will talk about the typewriter’s modifications after its original model and modern-day electric typewriters.

There are a few antecedents to the typewriter, such as the printing press and typographer. Typography is the organization of written language to make it legible while the printing press began the mass production of written works. Typography and the typographer allowed for the organization of letters making the typewriter writing legible. The printing press used a stamp system to create pages of text while the typewriter allowed people to gravitate away from pen and paper. In addition there are also alternatives to the typewriter like the stenotype machine. This invention, mainly used in courtrooms, is similar to a typewriter in that you can type words onto paper, however, the stenotype has less keys and is not able to type every letter in the alphabet, making it less useful for everyday writing. All three of these inventions came together to make the typewriter the success that it was. These inventions then lead to later inventions such as the modern day keyboard.

We also are going to cover how the typewriter impacted American culture from the past to present, especially in the shift from industrial work to “office” work. Specifically, we will focus on how the typewriter played a role in securing women a role into the office environment. The typewriter also affected writing in the home. Previously, people had been limited to writing by hand, however, with the invention of the typewriter, stamped writing became more accessible than it had even been with the printing press. In present day society, the typewriter is still used by many authors and even in the classroom setting as an alternative to desktops and laptops for many reasons. Some of those reasons have to do with less distractions and others have to do with the “personal touch” typewriters leave for writers.

For our group’s website, we are going to separate posts by time-period and subject matter. For example, the first post will be focused on the typewriter’s antecedents prior to Christopher Latham Sholes and Samuel W. Soule’s invention model. Then the second post will be about how Christopher Latham Sholes and Samuel W. Soule used those antecedents to make their model. We will keep the posts brief but frequent with between 500-600 words and we will have around 5-6 total posts. Within each post, we will take advantage of the digital format by incorporating primary source documents and images such as advertisements, model sketches, and patents. We will also embed video footage from the documentary referenced below when posting about the typewriter’s modern day influences.

For the documentary, we would like to film a present-day infomercial for the typewriter by incorporating all of its beneficial impacts to society from past to present. As of now, we’re planning on taking a more creative, comedic approach to the documentary. We will mainly be using a GoPro camera to film scenes as well as editing our footage using Final Cut Pro and AfterEffects.






101, T. (2017, February 20). Typewriters 101. Retrieved from Typewriters 101:

This site sells reprints of old typewriter ads that would be helpful for looking at the intended audience most typewriters were meant to be sold to.


Allen, Jay. “Inefficiency with the Best of Intentions.” Quality Progress 38, no. 10 (October 2005): 96. ProQuest (accessed February 20, 2017).

This article discusses the change to the typewriters keyboard to QWERTY from an original alphabetical organization. It mentions a myth that the order was changed to make people type slower so that the typewriters wouldn’t get jammed.


“ASME Honors Sholes & Glidden Typewriter.” Mechanical Engineering 133, no. 12 (December 2011): 78. ProQuest (accessed February 20, 2017).

The Sholes & Glidden typewriter was the first commercially successful typewriter and paved the road for the models that followed.


Bollhoefer, F. W. (1947). United States of America Patent No. US2624535 A.

This is a patent for an elevated platform for typewriters allowing for more versatile storage and even compact travel.


Christopher Lockett. The Typewriter (In the 21st Century). n.p.: Janson Media, 2012. Online.

This documentary gives a brief explanation about the invention and rise in the typewriter. The documentary primarily focuses on the importance the typewriter still plays in our present day society regarding writers, collectors, and even students in the classroom setting.


“The First Typewriter Operator.” Christian Advocate (1866-1905) 80, no. 4 (Jan 26, 1905): 131.

This article has a brief interview from Mrs. M. A Saunders who changed the original typewriter keyboard to the “QWERTY” keyboard that is so popular today.


Lenssen, Philipp. “Vintage Office Advertisements of the 1930s (Page 5).” Vintage Ad Browser. 2010. Accessed February 21, 2017.

This website has advertisements that would have appeared in magazines for many different types and brands of typewriters.


Lyons, Martyn. “QWERTYUIOP: How the Typewriter Influenced Writing Practices.” Quaerendo 44, no. 4 (September 2014): 219-240. America: History & Life, EBSCOhost (accessed February 19, 2017).

Martin focuses on the cultural affects the typewriter had with authors since the beginning of its invention. There are differences in opinion from authors saying that the typewriter distances the writer from their writing and others saying it gives them more access. Either way, the article explores the large impact the typewriter had in the world of literature.


Madsen, Diane Gilbert.“‘To Pound a Vicious Typewriter’: Hemingway’s Corona #3.” Hemingway Review 32, no. 2 (Spring 2013): 109-121. Muse (accessed February 20, 2017).

This article discusses the effect of the typewriter specially on Hemingway’s writings. It discusses the path that Hemingway was able to take due to the typewriter that had been gifted to him.


Margolis, Ellie. “Is the Medium the Message?.” Legal Communication & Rhetoric: JALWD 12, (Fall 2015): 1-28. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed February 21, 2017).

This article discusses the typewriter and its antecedents and their role in the courtroom, and how they revolutionized note taking.


Overleigh, Herbert. “THE EVOLUTION OF THE TYPEWRITER.” Belford’s Monthly and Democratic Review (1891-1892) 8, no. 47 (04, 1892): 161.

This article goes through the different antecedents of the typewriter. It begins with the first patent request in Britain in 1714 up until 1892, when the article was written.


Polt, R. (1992, December 9). The Classic Typewriter Page. Retrieved from Typewriters:

This web page is A resource for all aspects of typewriters ranging from history, parts, key manufacturers and collections.


Strom, Sharon Hartman. Beyond the Typewriter : Gender, Class, and the Origins of Modern American Office Work, 1900-1930. Women in American History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Strom focuses on how the typewriter and other office machinery revolutionized the office environment. The typewriter specifically changed the lives of women and women’s  careers starting at the beginning of the 20th century.


Students Sit at Desk with Typewriter. 1964-04-21. Centennial Image Collection, Special Collections and University Archives.

This image demonstrated how the typewriter allowed a switch from pen and paper to more efficient typed work.


Typewriterdatabase. (2011, February 25). The Typewriter Database. Retrieved from typewriterdatabase:

This site is an online database that deals with the history of various typewriter manufacturers and models as well as serial numbers and pictures.


“Typewriter patents.” Extracts from Patent Office 24, no. 826, 561-839, 746. HathiTrust (accessed February 20, 2017).
This sources shows the many different patents for the typewriters. This demonstrates the variety of models and the enormity of the typewriter as a potential successful invention.

Project Proposal

The topic of this research project will be the microwave, how it was invented, and how it changed food preparation. The microwave plays an essential role in everyday life. It helped change the concept of preparing and cooking food, and it helped shape the types of appliances found in modern kitchens. We chose this topic to not only heighten our appreciation for this modern convenience we take for granted, but to learn more about how the product has evolved into the phenomenon people cannot live without today.

The blog component of the project will consist of a home page and then four pages off of it. The homepage will consist of mostly videos and pictures of the different microwave styles over the years, as well as provide an overview of the topics covered on the other pages. The first page will discuss Percy Spencer, who invented the microwave somewhat by accident. Spencer worked at a paper factory plant and one day on the job he crossed through a radar set. He noticed a candy from his pocket had melted when he passed through. [1]  It was in this moment his fascination with this discovery took off as he begun to test other foods, like the popcorn kernel, and conduct experiments on the matter. After having great amounts of success in his research, he applied for the patent on the invention in 1945. [2] The first commercial microwave, 6 feet tall and 750 pounds, came out in 1947 and was made available for restaurants and businesses. [3] After continued research and editing of the product, the first home microwave came out in 1967. [4] The microwave could now fit on a kitchen counter, which made it more desirable for a broader market of consumers, and suddenly the microwave went from being a piece of technology that was impractical for most consumers, to being highly sought after.

The next page will cover the antecedents and as well as the possible alternative. The antecedents page will begin with the history of the original oven which was built in France in 1490. [5]  One of the next developments in the history of the microwave was the strew stove, which was a wood-burning stove that better contained smoke fumes created by the oven.  [6] Then, the iron stove was invented in the early 1800’s. [7] Next came the  patent for the electric oven in 1896, and the final the electric oven in 1920.[8]  At the time of the microwaves creation, there were a number of different alternatives that could have been chosen. One possible alternative is the toaster oven, a derivative of the toaster. One interesting note is that while the toaster oven was a possible alternative, it did not fade into the background. It can still be found in many kitchens today. The page will also include a timeline of all the events, not only leading up to the microwave but after the microwave as well, so that the information is easy to follow chronologically for the viewer.

The third page will be the basic science behind a microwave’s functions, both then and now. Microwaves operate by the creation of heat energy from friction between waves that penetrate the food within the microwave. Before, conventional ovens would have an electric current that flows through the metallic elements to create heat and cook the food inside. There is typically a thermostat in the oven to measure temperature and adjust the current to maintain it. Unlike a conventional oven, microwave ovens do not heat the entire space inside the appliance. They use electromagnetic energy and generate electromagnetic waves that heat up the food in the appliance. Because the waves heat up just the food inside, microwave ovens are much more electricity efficient than the traditional oven. [9] The purpose here is not to get into the fine details of the science behind the microwave, but instead to give the viewer the ability to have a basic understanding of the mechanics behind it. This will help their understanding as to why the microwave changed cooking.  

The final page will be the impact that the microwave had on American society. One interesting impact the microwave had on society was that it helped to build and cement the popcorn industry. Popcorn sales started commercially the year before Spencer gained the patent for the microwave. [10] In the original patent submitted by Spencer, popcorn was drawn inside the microwave. [11] This relationship between popcorn and the microwave is still seen today, as there are numerous microwave popcorn companies. Another impact the microwave had on American society was the change in cooking times. Before the microwave oven, it could a laborious task to prepare a meal when thinking about the time needed to prepare the meal as well as the having actually ability to cook it. But with the microwave came convenience. It allowed for full meals to be made quickly, and far less cooking ability was required. This led to a rise in the market for cookbooks which focused solely on the microwaves. The impact and staying power that the microwave had on American culture is clear – when initially invented, it had limited use in restaurants, however, today approximately ninety-five percent of homes in the United States contain a microwave. [12]

The documentary component of the project will cover the topics mentioned above, but with a humorous undertone. The intention of the documentary is to be light hearted and fun, in order to keep the audience engaged and interested. The documentary will be created using a video camera and iMovie. The video will highlight the importance of the microwave for students as well as others who use the microwave. For the documentary,  students on campus will be recorded talking about their experiences with the technology, both growing up and how they are utilized in college.

        As college students, we are always on the go from one thing to the next. Attempting to fit meals into a schedule can seem impossible sometimes. Because of the microwave, students have the ability to cook meals quickly and efficiently. It is primarily because of this convenience and ease that the microwave oven has become such a staple in kitchens across the United States.


[1] “Percy Spencer,” Famous Inventors, accessed February 19, 2017,

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] “Food for Thought: the History of the Oven,” hhgregg, last modified December 12, 2013, accessed February 20, 2017,

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] “Microwave Ovens vs. Commercial Ovens: a Comparison of Technology and Efficiency,” Bilji Bacao!, last modified April 22, 2016, accessed February 20, 2016,

[10] Joseph Gustaitis, “The Explosive History of Popcorn,” American History 36, no. 4 (2001): 32 – 37.

[11] Spencer, Percy. Method of treating foodstuffs. U.S. Patent 2495429 filed October 8, 1945 issued January 24 1950.

[12] Ken Cooper, “Microlessons: Toward a History of Information-Age Cuisine,” Technology and Culture 56, no. 3 (2015): 580.

Project Proposal: The Computer Mouse

The computer mouse was an important part of interactive computer technology, and is today a common household item. The 1968 debut of the computer mouse was called the “Mother of all Demos,” as it introduced a world to personal and interactive computing. Since it’s conception, companies such as Apple, Microsoft and Logitech have spent lots of funding on refining the computer mouse. The longevity of the design of the mouse itself in the 40 years of its existence outlines its importance and efficiency in the technological world. Despite changes with the number of buttons and the aesthetic design and new technology additions, the mouse in its functionality remains largely the same. There are now wireless mouses, and mouses such as the “Mighty Mouse” that include four buttons (also two that are not physical). There are now mouses with bluetooth technology. The mouse has become part of the computer itself- a necessary input device for all desktops even in the growing age of touch screens. Our project will aim to show the continuing importance of the mouse.

Today the computer mouse has become a standard household item, but it is still a fairly new piece of technology, given that it was developed and put into use just a few decades ago. There are two major antecedents and alternatives to the computer mouse, in terms of computer-user interactivity: the lightpen and the joystick. Both lightpens and joysticks were used by computer users to control aspects of computer screen interactivity. Joysticks are still used even today, though they are used for video games and remote control of technologies such as drones and guided missiles. Lightpens, which were used in order to measure off selected areas of computer screens, have almost totally been phased out in favor of joysticks and computer mice for computer-user interactivity capability. However, the lightpen’s precursor, the lightgun is still utilized today as the device for tactical purposes such as real-time control of radar-networked airspaces.

Doug Engelbart, the man credited with the invention of the computer mouse, first came up with the idea during a conference session on computer graphics that he was attending in 1961. A year after his initial inspiration, he received a grant that allowed him to begin research regarding interactive computing. By 1965, Engelbart and his team published the final report of their study on the computer mouse versus other screen-selection technologies. The results of the study were overwhelmingly in favor of the computer mouse as the best and most efficient screen-selection technology. In 1970, the patent for the computer mouse, which was called the “x, y position indicator for a display system,” was awarded.

Our blog about the mouse will separate posts based on the various aspects of its invention into categories, including the following: antecedents and alternatives, the making of the mouse, the mouse and American society, and the future of the mouse. These categories will be listed as a part of the main header menu at the top of our site’s webpage and be featured on the sidebar as well. Our group mates will each choose a topic and be responsible for that category’s posts. Every post will have at least a featured image and additional supplementary image to facilitate understanding. Around 1-3 sources from our Bibliography will be used for each blog post.

For our documentary, we will make a very simple yet informative exposition about the mouse. The documentary will start with examining the basics of the mouse today, and then shift back to the beginning of its invention and antecedents, proceeding along with time to fully explain its creation and influence. We will have a designated narrator(s) who will tell the story of the mouse and feature authentic video and photos to illustrate the narrative. Our main creative resources for creating the documentary will include iPhones, video cameras, Photoshop, internet sources featuring content about the mouse’s inventor, Garageband to handle the sound and recording, and finally iMovie to put everything together. We hope to discuss the advent of the computer mouse, how it changed society’s perspective of personal computing, and how society today continues to affect its development.

We decided on the mouse not as our first choice, but as an alternative. One of our main motivations behind choosing a theme was to look for a piece of technology that is commonly overlooked and underrated. After thinking about the aglet, the plastic tip at the end of the shoelace, we decided to instead go for “the aglet of the digital world”: the computer mouse. Our project aims to unveil just how revolutionary this technology was at the time of its invention and to emphasize how different our lives would be, as well as personal computing, without it. The mouse may lack recognition for now, however we will soon demonstrate its importance to the development of computers as an industry.


Anonymous. “Goodbye, Computer Mouse.” Communications of the ACM 51, no. 9 (September 2008): 16.
This source is a very brief magazine article explaining differing opinions about whether or not the mouse is doomed to become obsolete in the coming years.

Atkinson, Paul. “The Best Laid Plans of Mice and Men: The Computer Mouse in the History of Computing.” Design Issues 23, no. 3 (Summer 2007): 49-61.
This is a scholarly journal article that explains the mouse’s historical development and how companies such as Xerox and Apple played a major role in both its design and manufacture.

Bardini, Thierry. Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2000.
This book analyzes the influence that Douglas Engelbart had on the world of personal computing through his work with windowed user interface, hypertext, and of course his invention of the mouse.

Brown, David E. Inventing Modern America: From the Microwave to the Mouse. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2002.
This book profiles thirty-five American inventors who “exemplify the rich technological creativity of the United States over the past century”. Developed by an MIT-program this book aims to tell the personal stories and technological stories of American inventors (obviously Douglas Engelbart is included in this).

Edwards, Benji. “The Computer Mouse Turns 40.” Macworld, December 9, 2008. Accessed February 20, 2017. 40.html
This article was published on the mouse’s 40th anniversary and details the invention, history and evolution of the computer mouse. In those 40 years not all that much has changed, highlighting the ingenious efficiency of an easy-to use-pointing device.

Engelbart, Douglas C. “Inventor of the Computer Mouse.” YouTube video. 2:03. Posted by Neoncon2008, February 25, 2010. Accessed February 20, 2017. com/watch?v=SQ7totFRh4g
Video of Doug Engelbart talking about how he was sitting in a class about computer graphics when he get an idea about pointing at the screen and started writing it down in the notebook he carried with him. A rough idea of a box on two wheels signaling to the computer. Someone looked at it, called it the mouse, and the name stuck.

English, William K., Douglas C, Englebart, and Melvyn L. Berman. “Display-Selection Techniques for Text Manipulation.” IEEE Transaction on Human Factors in Electronics 8, no. 1 (March 1967): 5-15.
This is a link to a scholarly journal article written by Engelbart and his associates discussing the alternatives to the mouse at its time of invention. It later proceeds to explain the reasoning behind the success of the mouse, how come it was the chosen invention for computer-aided text manipulation. A paper on the merits of display detection techniques for computers written by William K, English, Douglas C. Engelbart, and Melvyn L. Bernman. In the experiment, the mouse performed well with good speed and acurracy compared to the other devices.

Frenkel, Karen A. “A Difficult, Unforgettable Idea.” Communications of the ACM 53, no. 3 (March 2009): 21.
Karen Frenkel writes of the 40th anniversary of Engelbart’s original demonstration of the computer mouse, detailing the recollections of that demonstration of individuals she calls industry luminaries.

Ghent, Janet Silver. “The Mouse that Roared.” Palo Alto Weekly, March 26, 2015. Accessed February 20, 2017. that-roared
Janet Silver Ghent discusses the debut of the computer mouse, a production that came to be known as the “mother of all demos.” She then details an electronic opera, produced by Ben Neill and Mikel Rouse that drew inspiration from Engelbert’s original demonstration of the computer mouse.

Greenemeier, Larry. “The Origin of the Computer Mouse: Now an Endangered Species, it was Crucial to the Development of Personal Computing and Internet.” Scientific American, August 18, 2009. Accessed February 20, 2017. cle/origins-computer-mouse/
In this article, Larry Greenmeier explains the history of the invention of the computer mouse. He discusses the various individuals that contributed to the technological advancement of the mouse, and ends with a prediction for the future of computer mouse production.

Kabbash, Paul, William Buxton, and Abigail Sellen. “Two-Handed Input in a Compound Task.” Human Factors in Computing Systems, April 24, 1994. Accessed February 20, 2017.
This scholarly paper details how the future of GUIs lies in a device that will engage both hands. Benefits of a two hand technique would be performing a simultaneous subtask, but a difficulty that may arise may be the over-loading on cognitive tasks.

Living History: The Doug Engelbart Archive. Doug Engelbart Institute. Accessed February 20, 2017.
This is the link to the homepage of Doug Engelbart’s archive. It gives an overview of what the archive offers, as well as provides a brief history of both Engelbart and his invention.

Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim. “Mighty Mouse.” Stanford Magazine, March/April 2002. Accessed February 20, 2017. 94
This source is a magazine article that discusses how Apple computers used Engelbart’s design to improve the mouse by making it cheaper, easier to mass produce, and much more reliable.

Peters, Michael and Jason Ivanoff. “Performance Asymmetries in Computer Mouse Control of Right-Handers, and Left-Handers with Left- and Right-Handed Mouse Experience.” Journal of Motor Behavior 32, no. 1 (March 1999): 86-94.
This scholarly article compares precision and general computer mouse aiming performances in right-handers and left-handers. The findings showed that right-handers generally performed better and that people performed better when they used their prefer hand on the mouse rather than their inexperienced hand.

Roch, Axel. “Fire-Control and Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a History of the Computer Mouse (1940-1965).” Lab. Jahrbuch der Kunsthochschule für Medien in Köln, August 28, 1998. Accessed February 20, 2017.
This is an article published by a student at Stanford explaining the antecedents to the mouse and how radar devices from World War II inspired its design.

The Mouse Site: The Archive. Stanford University. Accessed February 20, 2017.
This site is Stanford University’s archive library dedicated to primary resources focused on Engelbart’s research and interviews about his invention: the computer mouse.

US Archives, “Computer-Aided Display Control.” National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Accessed February 20, 2017.
This is an 109 page report by W.K. English, D.C. Engelbart and Bonnie Huddart that shows the research on the “computer-aided human control of computer displays”. The report contains analysis and evaluation of these techniques.

US Patent and Trademark Office, “Computer Mouse Input Device with Multi-Axis Palm Control.” USPTO Patent Full-Text and Image Database. Accessed February 20, 2017.
This is the 2004 patent for the computer mouse input device with multi-axis palm control.

US Patent and Trademark Office, “Computer Mouse or Keyboard Input Device Utilizing Capacitive Sensors.” USPTO Patent Full-Text and Image Database. Accessed February 20, 2017. HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&d=PALL&RefSrch=yes&Query=PN/5463388
This is the 1995 patent of the computer mouse, which is called the keyboard input device utilizing capacitive sensors in the title.

US Patent and Trademark Office, “Z-Y Position Controller Having Axially-Inclined Transducer Members.” USPTO Patent Full-Text and Image Database. Accessed February 20, 2017. PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4628755.PN.&OS=PN/4628755&RS=PN/4628755
This is the patent for the hardware within the mouse that transfers motion from the “drive wheel” on the mouse onto the X and Y axis positioning components of the cursor onto the computer display. This is patent belonged to Jack S. Hawley and comes after Engelbart’s patent in the year 1986.

US Patent and Trademark Office, “X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System.” USPTO Patent Full-Text and Image Database. Accessed February 20, 2017.
Here is the patent issued in 1970 for Englebart’s proposed “X-Y position indicator” transferring motion of the drive wheel on the mouse to the computer’s display.

van Dam, Andries. “Post – WIMP User Interfaces.” Communications of the ACM 40, no. 2 (February 1997): 63-67.
This scholarly essay argues that new technology (post-WIMP GUIs graphical user interfaces) must rely on gesture and speech recognition rather than menus, forms and toolbars. This draws on the “easy to use” devices made to improve desktop productivity in the 1970s (the mouse is included in this).